Effect of Interface Peak Pressures following the Fifth Spine Board Modification
1Wilson J, 2Sun H, 1Roach M, 1Nemunaitis G
1MetroHealth, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA
Objective: Persons following spinal cord injury (SCI) are at a high risk for skin pressure injury. Three contributing factors include pressure intensity, pressure duration and tissue tolerance. Immobilization on the standard spine board (SSB) has demonstrated elevated pressure intensity. The fifth spine board (P-5) with pressure reducing modifications is presented and peak interface pressures on the head, scapulothoracic (ST), sacroiliac (SI), and heels are compared with the SSB.
Design/Methods: Twenty-one healthy, able-bodied men and women were prospectively evaluated on both the SSB and P-5 board. Height, weight, sex, race and age were recorded pre-study. Volunteers’ hands and feet were secured with arm and foot straps. The FSA Boditrak pressure mapping system was used to monitor interface pressure at the head, ST, SI, and heel regions for each subject on both boards. Measurements were recorded every minute for 15 minutes.
Results: The mean age was 31.33 years and mean body mass index (BMI) was 28.7. The mean of the peak pressures on the SSB on the head, ST, SI, and heel regions were 227.60 mmHg, 148.86 mmHg, 360.30 mmHg and 179.31 mmHg, respectively. The mean of the peak pressures on the P-5 board on the head, ST, SI, and heel regions were 51.86 mmHg, 60.12 mmHg, 66.77 mmHg and 60.18 mmHg, respectively. A repeated measures for pairwise comparisons test, with BMI as a covariate, showed that interface pressures at each body region were significantly lower (p = <.001) with the P-5 board compared to the SSB.
Conclusion: Spine immobilization on a SSB generates high interface pressures at the head, ST, SI, and heel regions. The P-5 proof of concept modification of the spine board significantly reduced the peak pressures at these regions. This study will be used to inform future SSB modifications that aim to reduce peak interface pressures. Future work will include production, evaluation and distribution of a prototype pressure relief spine board in the effort demonstrate reduced rates of skin breakdown in immobilized patients.
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